What is bladder stones?

Bladder stones are hard masses of minerals that are concentrated in the bladder. Bladder stones develop when the urine in the bladder becomes concentrated, causing the minerals naturally present in the urine to crystallize.

About 85% of the stones in the bladder are composed of calcium and the remainder is composed of various substances, including uric acid, cystine or struvite (a mixture of magnesium, ammonium and phosphate).

Causes

The main cause of bladder stone formations is the obstruction of the channel that the urine travels to the external environment (urethra), which prevents the urine from being completely eliminated. This causes an accumulation of urine in the bladder and the crystals then start to form, giving rise to the bladder stone.

Some of the factors that increase the risk of bladder stone formation are:

  1. Prostate enlargement;
  2. Urinary infection;
  3. Neurological diseases that compromise the functioning of the bladder (multiple sclerosis, stroke, spinal cord injury, among others);
  4. Presence of a foreign body (catheter, probe);
  5. Renal calculus.

The enlarged prostate is among the most common causes of bladder stone because it hinders the elimination of urine, which explains most cases of bladder stones occur in men over 60 years and have changes in the prostate.

Any change in the urinary system that causes accumulation of urine in the bladder can favour the development of bladder stones, such as weakening of the bladder muscles, urinary tract infection and neurological dysfunction in the bladder.

The presence of foreign bodies in the bladder also favours the development of stones, such as catheters, remnants of surgical materials, among others.

In elderly people, bladder stones are usually formed in the bladder itself and are mainly composed of uric acid.

How is the bladder stone formed?

Bladder stones are formed by crystals (calcium salts), which accumulate in the urine “stopped” inside the bladder, due to some difficulty in emptying the organ. These crystals come together and calcify, giving rise to the calculations.

Bladder stones may appear in isolation, as a single stone, or in larger quantities, with multiple stones being found. They can have different sizes and be attached, fixed to the internal wall of the bladder or loose inside the organ.

Anyone, even in the absence of infections, anatomical changes or other defects, can have bladder stones. However, it is more commonly found, as stated above, in people who have some difficulty in emptying the bladder.

It is also worth mentioning that the stone can originate in the bladder as well as in the kidneys, and reach the bladder through the ureters, which are the channels that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Therefore, the investigation for the cause and bladder stone treatment in Rohini should include the analysis of the entire urinary system.

The urologist in Pitampura is the specialist responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of stones found in the urinary system.

Symptoms

Bladder stone signs and symptoms can include pain in the pubic area, pain when urinating, interruption of urine output at the time of urination, presence of blood in the urine and constant urge to urinate, even at night.

People with bladder stones may still experience pain at the tip of the penis, testicles, back and hips. These symptoms usually worsen with physical activity and sudden movements.

Treatment

First, it is of fundamental importance to eliminate factors that cause urinary bladder stasis and thus avoid the formation of new stones. Clinical bladder stone treatment in Pitampura can be attempted, for chemical dissolution of the stone. As a rule, bladder lithiasis is treated surgically. The surgical method will be selected according to the location, size and hardness of the stone, as well as the general condition of the patient.
– Shock Wave Extracorporeal Lithotripsy: Machine capable of breaking calculations into smaller stones by applying waves generated by an electrohydraulic/electromagnetic energy source. It is a non-invasive bladder stone treatment in Rohini and does not require incisions to be performed. However, its effectiveness is related to the size of the stone, being indicated for stones smaller than 2 cm and of softer consistency or for patients with high surgical risk.
– Endourological treatments: indicated in cases of large and multiple calculations. In these methods, there is no need for an incision since the equipment is accessed through the urinary tract (urethra). These procedures are considered the gold standard in the bladder stone treatment in Pitampura and consist of the visualization of the stone, fragmentation or disintegration of it through ballistic, ultrasonic or LASER energy. After the stones are broken, the fragments are removed, ensuring that the patient is free of calculations. As it is a minimally invasive procedure, it guarantees the patient lower rates of complications and shorter hospital stay.
– Open surgery: indicated for cases of very large stones, for which fragmentation and removal of the stone in an endoscopic manner is not possible. Open surgery is performed using a suprapubic approach.

In the presence of bladder stone symptoms, consult a urologist in Rohini.