Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) can occur in the urethra, bladder, ureters and kidneys. It is more common in the lower tract, composed of the bladder and urethra.
In more than 95% of patients, the infection is of bacterial origin, with the bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) responsible for more than 3/4 of these cases.
The location where the infection occurs influences the types, causes and symptoms. The most common types are: cystitis (infection of the bladder), urethritis (infection of the urethra), pyelonephritis (infection of the kidneys) and infection of the ureters.
The main tests done to detect urinary tract infection are:
Urine test: it is the most common and quickest. In it, the urine is analyzed for leukocytes and blood, signs of infection.
Urine culture: the urine sample is usually subjected to analysis in the laboratory, where it will grow the bacteria, to identify the type and the most effective antibiotics against it. It is the best test to identify the type of infection, but it takes about 3 to 5 days to complete.
Imaging tests: an ultrasound or a tomography is also able to detect abnormalities in the urinary tract.
In men, in which the occurrence is much less significant than in women, most urinary infections have a low risk of drinking water or constipation as a risk factor.
In addition, the practice of sex without a condom increases the chances of contamination. Some men with benign prostatic hyperplasia may retain urine in the bladder for a long time, which also predisposes them to infections.
Having the immune system suppressed prevents the body’s defences from acting properly, facilitating the entry of bacteria that cause infections.
Some measures can prevent urinary tract infections:
- Drink plenty of fluids
- Urinating after sex to empty your bladder and dilute urine
- Clean up after urinating to prevent bacteria from building up
- Use a condom during sexual intercourse
In men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, reducing the intake of caffeine, alcohol and certain medications can help to improve the flow of urine and prevent its retention in the bladder, thus decreasing the likelihood of urinary tract infection.
Symptoms depend on where the bacteria is located. When infection occurs in the urethra, there may be an urgency and urge to urinate frequently, followed by pain in the urinary canal.
When the bacteria infects the kidneys, it can cause high fever, back pain (on the side of the infected kidney), nausea and vomiting.
Other common symptoms are:
- Milky urine with a sharp odour
- Blood mixed with urine
- Strong burning when urinating
- Dark urine
- Pelvic pain
- Pain in the rectum
- Increased frequency of urination
The urinary tract infection treatment in Rohini will depend a lot on the type and severity of the infection. Generally, antibiotics are prescribed to fight the bacteria and pain relievers to relieve pain and burning when urinating.
In general, most uncomplicated urinary infections are completely eliminated with seven days of treatment. If a high urinary tract infection (kidneys and ureters, called pyelonephritis) or a prostate infection is diagnosed, your urologist in Rohini may prescribe antibiotics for two weeks or more.
There are still very serious cases that require treatment in hospital, with drugs administered intravenously. These conditions usually manifest with fever, pain, vomiting and nausea.
What causes urinary tract infection?
In general, the problem is caused mainly by germs from the intestine. So much so that in 85% of cases, the problem is caused by an intestinal bacteria called Escherichia coli.
Is the disease transmissible?
No. However, it can manifest itself after sexual intercourse because the pH of the region is altered. Among women who vary a lot from a partner, the incidence is demonstrably higher.
Can it be sexually transmitted?
Although environmental transmission is more common, care should be taken with sexual transmission. Whenever a bacterium exists in one of the partners, it can be transmitted sexually. If someone has a urinary tract infection with a germ called chlamydia, for example, it can actually compromise the urinary and sexual pathways.
Are there people who are predisposed to having urinary infections?
Yes. There are several reasons that can facilitate this problem. It is necessary to pay attention to family history, low resistance and diseases such as AIDS, diabetes and cancer, which are also aggravating. Use of spermicides, multiple partners and urinary calculi also predispose.
What happens when the urinary tract infection is not treated?
When left untreated, the infection tends to evolve, it can turn into pyelonephritis, which can generate a generalized infection, known as sepsis. In addition, it can lead to the formation of abscesses in the kidney.
How to prevent urinary tract infection?
The main recommendations are: drink plenty of water, to make the urine clearer; urinating after intercourse, not holding urine for a long time and, if this is a recurring problem, see a urologist to investigate the case.
Is it more frequent in elderly people?
Yes, since the resistance decreases with age.